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Annex 60


The Progress of Advanced Marine Fuels

Purpose, Objectives and Key Question

This annex is established to create an assessment of fuel options that have emerged or significantly developed since the 2013 report (AMF Annex 41). The outcome that participants wish to achieve is a better understanding of the potential and limitations of new marine fuel options. The key question that we wish to address is; “How can the new forms of advanced marine fuels contribute to carbon neutral shipping in the future?”.

Activities and Workpackages

The work is a shared effort between the Annex participants. The following work packages have been planned:

  • Annex management (Denmark)
    • Preparation of annex documentation
    • Coordinating regular teleconferences between the partners
    • Coordination of Annex pre-meetings in connection to AMF ExCo meetings
    • Delivering progress reports at ExCo meetings
    • Contributions to the AMF Annual Report
    • Preparation of final report (compiled from individual contributions of the participants)
    • Preparation of key messages
  • Specific tasks for Denmark:
    • Converting four-stroke diesel engines 20 – 1600 kW to methanol by means of air preheating and variable dosage of chemical ignition improver (DTI).
    • Combustion engine studies of ammonia’s combustion properties in a dual fuel concept with diesel as pilot fuel igniter (DTU)
    • Investigation of ammonia/additive mixtures as a fuel for CI engines (DTU)
    • Investigations of ammonia/hydrogen mixtures as a fuel for SI engines (DTU)
    • Exhaust gas after treatment for ammonia engines (DTU)
  • Specific task for Finland:
    • Survey of legislation and technology, based on Black Carbon research, with a focal point on LNG/LBG.
  • Specific task for Sweden:
    • Literature review on past and existing projects with advanced motor fuels in inland/costal shipping and ferries (engine sizes of a few 100 kW) to document what have been done, the results (including hours of operation) and identify need for further actions (such as durability test, classification/standardisation etc).
  • Specific task for Switzerland:
    • Assessment of the state of the art of dual fuel technology for large two-stroke engines (Winterthur Gas & Diesel)
    • Investigation of ignition and combustion properties of mixtures of methane and gases with lower carbon intensity at conditions relevant for large two-stroke dual-fuel engines (FHNW, Winterthur Gas & Diesel)
  • Specific task for Korea:
    • Assessment of the state of the art of LNG/LPG mixture technology as a fuel for medium-speed four stroke engines (KSOE: Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering)
    • Investigation on LNG/LPG mixture combustion as a fuel for medium-speed dual-fuel engines (KSOE: Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering)
    • Ammonia as a Fuel for the Internal Combustion Engine and passenger Vehicle (KIER)
  • Specific task for USA:
    • Past Experience with Biofuels for Marine uses (DOE)
  • Specific task for Canada:
    • Implications of new IMO 2020 fuel specifications in relation to biofuels from e.g. thermochemical conversions.
  • Proposed task for China (TBD):
    • The progress of LNG technology and infrastructure

Expected Results

Specific results to be delivered:

  • Denmark: Formal Annex documents. A report on converting 4-stroke engines to methanol (DTI) and a report on Ammonia combustion studies (DTU)
  • Finland: A report on legislation and technology for advanced marine fuels
  • Sweden: A report on advanced marine fuels for small engines
  • Switzerland: A report on Dual Fuel technology for large two-stroke engines and the effect of mixtures of methane and gases with lower carbon intensity
  • Korea: A report on LPG/LNG mixtures and Ammonia
  • USA: A summary report on past experiences with biofuels for marine use
  • Canada: A report of the implications of IMO fuel specifications on biofuels for shipping
  • China (To Be Decided): A report on LNG technology and infrastructure

Project Duration

November 2019 - November 2022


   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing


Canada, Denmark, Finland, Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, USA


Total Budget

> € 1.000.000

Operating Agent

Kim Winther (
Danish Technological Institute