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Annex 35-2


Annex 35-2: Particulate measurements: Ethanol and Butanol in DISI Engines

Key Messages - Particulate Measurements: Ethanol and Isobutanol in Direct Injection Spark Ignited Engines, May 2014

Final Report - Particulate Measurements: Ethanol and Iso-Butanol in Direct Injection Spark Ignited Engines, September 2014

Purpose and Objectives

Because of the increasing use of ethanol, the growing number of DISI engines available from vehicle manufacturers, and of the impact on the design and effectiveness of aftertreatment systems, there is a need to understand particulate formation due to interaction of ethanol-gasoline blends in DISI engines. Initial research has shown that low-level ethanol blends decrease PM formation, however further confirmation is needed. Particulate formation is basically unknown in the cases of butanol blends. This sub-task to Annex 35 is designed to shed light on these issues.


The project involves comparing direct injection of ethanol and butanol blended fuels to direct injection of gasoline injected fuels. Steady-state engine dynamometer tests as well as transient chassis dynamometer tests will be performed with gasoline direct-injection engines and emissions, power, and fuel economy will be compared.


Project Duration November 2010 – May 2014
Task Sharing Canada, China, Finland, United States
Cost Sharing No cost sharing
Total Budget  

Operating Agent

Ms. Debbie Rosenblatt
Environment Canada
Emissions Research and Measurement Section
335 River Road
K1A OE3 Ottawa, Ontario
phone: `+1 613 998 9590 ext. 276
fax: `+1 613 952 1006