Ethanol as low concentration component â€œE10â€
In maximum, 5, 10 or 15% ethanol in gasoline can be used for conventional cars depending on the regional regulations. In Brazil, cars are slightly modified for ethanol concentrations up to some 25%. Exhaust emissions form new cars are low, and absolute differences between fuels are small in normal driving conditions. The effect of low-level ethanol on exhaust emissions is mainly seen at cold-start and heavy-driving conditions.
- How much ethanol can be used in conventional cars?
- Material compatibility
- Storage and stability
- Groundwater issues
- Evaporative emissions
- Nitrogen oxides
- Nitrous oxide
- Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
- 1,3-Butadiene, benzene and methane
- Aldehydes and ethanol
- Particles, PAH and mutagenecity
- Ozone forming potential
- Summary of emissions
IEA AMF work on low-concentration ethanol:
Aakko-Saksa et al. (2011) Biogasoline options for conventional spark-ignition cars. VTT Working Papers 187.
Aakko-Saksa, P., Rantanen-Kolehmainen, L., Koponen, P., Engman, A. and Kihlman, J. (2011) Biogasoline options – Possibilities for achieving high bio-share and compatibility with conventional cars. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 4:298–317 (also SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0111). Full technical report: VTT report W187.
Aakko, P., Jäntti, A., Pentikäinen, J., Honkanen, T. and Rantanen, L. (2002) An extensive analysis of the exhaust emissions from spark-ignition vehicles using fuels with biocomponents. FISITA Paper F02E027.
AFDC (2009) US DoE Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center. (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions_e10.htmll).
API (2001) Alcohols and Ethers – A Technical Assessment of Their Application as Fuels and Fuel Components. API Publication 4261. 3rd Edition, June 2001.
Australian study (2008) Evaluating the Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol. Final report KW48/17/F3.3F. (21 vehicles using E5 and E10 splash-blended gasoline/ethanol blends. Seven cars were from 90’s, seven from around 2003 and seven from 2006 or newer.)
Bechtold, R. L. (1997) Alternative Fuels Guidebook - Properties, Storage, Dispensing, and Vehicle Facility Modifications. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
CRC (2012) Intermediate-level ethanol blends engine durability study. CRC Project CM-136-09-1B. Submitted by Submitted by Kleeberg, H., FEV, Inc., April 2012.
CRFA (2003) Canadian Renewable Fuels Association Website. (http://www.greenfuels.org).
Croes, B. et al. (1999) Health and environmental assessment of the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. Report to California Environmental Policy Council.
CONCAWE Review, Vol. 15 no 1, Spring 2006.
Davis, G., Heil, E. and Rust, R. (2000) Ethanol vehicle cold start improvement when using a hydrogen supplemented E85 fuel. AIAA-2000-2849.
Deep, R. et al. (2002) Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies. Journal of environmental engineering. 128: 868-875.
Degaldo, R., Araujo, A. and Fernandes, V. (2007) Properties of Brazilian gasoline mixed with hydrated ethanol for flex-fuel technology. Fuel Processing Technology 88 (2007) 365-368.
Durbin, T., Miller, W., Younglove, T., Huai, T. and Cocker, K. (2006). Effects of Ethanol and Volatility Parameters on Exhaust Emissions. CRC Project No. E-67. (An extensive study of the effect of ethanol 0, 5.7, and 10 vol-% and volatility parameters on exhaust emissions. Matrix of twelve fuels was planned to vary ethanol content, mid-range and back-end volatility properties independently to study the effect of these parameters. Twelve cars, model year 2002-2003, representing LEV, ULEV and SULEV emission levels were tested.)
E85 Handbook (2013) Handbook of Handling, Storing, and Dispensing of E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends. US Dpeartment of Energy. DOE/GO-102013-3861.
Egebäck, K-E., Henke, M., Rehnlund, B., Wallin, M. and Westerholm, R. (2005) Blending ethanol in gasoline for spark ignition engines. Problem inventory and evaporative emissions. Report MTC 5407. (Evaporative emissions of ethanol blended as 5%, 10%, and 15% in low RVP gasoline (63 kPa) and in high RVP gasoline (70 kPa)).
EMA (2010) Technical Statement on the Use of Oxygenated Gasoline Blends in Spark Ignition Engines. Engine Manufacturers Association. January 2010. (http://www.enginemanufacturers.org/).
Engelen et al. (2008) Guidelines for blending and handling motor gasoline containing up to 10% v/v ethanol. CONCAWE report no. 3/08.
Environment Australia. (2002a) A Literature Review Based Assessment on the Impacts of a 20% Ethanol Gasoline Fuel Blend on the Australian Vehicle Fleet. November 2002. http://www.deh.gov.au/atmosphere/ethanol/report/chapter3.html
Environment Australia. (2002b) Setting ethanol limit in petrol.
ETP 2011 http://www.biofuelstp.eu/vehicles.html
Filho, O. (2008) Gasoline made with hydrous ethanol. Delphi South America Technical Center. September 2008.
Furey, R. (1985) Volatility characteristics of gaoline-alcohol and gasoline-ether fuel blends. Society of Automotive Engineers. Warrendale. SAE 852116.
Golombok, M. (1999) Tautomerism and Octane Quality in Carbonyl-Containing Oxygenates. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1999, 38, 3776-3778.
Graboski, M. (1999) Tautomerism and octane quality in carbonyl-containing oxygenates. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38(1999)3776-3778.
Graham, L., Belisle, S. and Baas, C-L. (2008) Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles operating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85. Atmospheric Environment 42(2008) 4498-4516. (A study on low-concentration gasoline/ethanol blends with three multi-port fuel injected (MPFI) cars of model years 1998, 2001, and 2003 and one gasoline direct injection (GDI) car from 2000. Tests were conducted at +20 and -10 °C. E10 and E20 fuels were tailored to same vapor pressure as reference gasoline. One of the fuels was splash-blended E10.)
Gregory,L. Consulting (2012) A Comphrehensive Analysis of Current Research on E15 Dispensing Component Compatibility. March 2012.
Hammel-Smith, C., Fang, J., Powders, M. and Aabakken, J. (2002) Issues associated with the use of higher ethanol blends (E17-E24). NREL/TP-510-32206.
Haskew, H. and Liberty, T. (2006) Fuel permeation from automotive systems: E0, E6, E10, E20 and E85. Final report. CRC Project No. E-65-3.
IEA (2011) Technology Roadmap - Biofuels for Transport. (c) OECD/IEA 2011.
JEC (2011) EU renewable energy targets in 2020: Analysis of scenarios for transport. JEC Biofuels Programme.
Kalghatgi, G. (2005) Auto-Ignition Quality of Practical Fuels and Implications for Fuel Requirements of Future SI and HCCI Engines. Society of Automotive Engineers. Technical Paper 2005-01-0239.
Kameoka, A., Nagai, K., Sugiyama, G. and Seko, T. Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles. Society of Automotive Engineers. Technical Paper 2005-01-3708.
Karlsson, H., Gåste, J. and Åsman, P. Regulated and non-regulated emissions from Euro 4 alternative fuel vehicles. Society of Automotive Engineers. Warrendale. Technical Paper 2008-01-1770.
Karman, D. (2003) Ethanol fuelled motor vehicle emissions: A literature review. Carleton University.
Lahvis, M. (2003) Evaluation of Small-Volume Releases of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline at UST Sites. API Soil and Groundwater Research Bulletin No. 19.
Larsen, U., Johansen, T. and Schramm, J. (2009) Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. Annex XXXV. http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/amf/pdf/annex35report_final.pdf
Martini, G. (ed) (2007) Joint EUCAR/JRC/CONCAWE Study on: Effects of Gasoline Vapour Pressure and Ethanol Content on Evaporative Emissions from Modern Cars, EUR 22713 EN. (http://ies.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). (This project studied evaporative emissions using various gasoline/ethanol blends with carbon canister equipped cars. One test fuel set consisted of splash blended E5 and E10 fuels, and the other fuel set of blends with adjusted vapor pressures.)
Murphy, M. (1998) Motor Fuel Options for Heavy Vehicle Diesel Engines: Fuel Properties and Specifications. Batelle.
Murphy, M. J., Joshua, D. T. and McCormick, R. L. (2004) Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data. NREL/SR-540-36805.
Niven, R. (2005) Ethanol in gasoline: environmental impacts and sustainability review article. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 9 (2005) 535-555.
Owen, K. and Coley, T. (1995) Automotive Fuels Reference Book. Society of Automotive Engineers. Warrendale. ISBN 1-56091-589-7.
Pentikäinen, J., Rantanen, L. and Aakko, P. (2004) The Effect of Heavy Olefins and Ethanol on Gasoline Emissions. SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2003.
Pettersson, L. (1994) Alcohol fuels for internal combustion engines. Kungl Tekniska Högskolan. TRITA-KET R4. Dissertation.
Prezelj, M. (1987) Pool octanes via oxygenates. Hydrocarbon Processing. Vol. 66(9), 68-70.
Reynolds, R. (2002). Fuel specifications and fuel property issues And their potential impact on the use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ethanol Project. Subcontract No. 4500010570.
RFA (2010) Fuel ethanol. Industry guidelines, specifications and procedures. RFA Renewable Fuels Association. December 2010.
Ricardo (2010) Technical Assessment of the Feasibility of Introducing E15 Blended Fuel in the U.S. Vehicle Fleet, 1994-2000 Model Years. Ricardo Inc. report for Renewable Fuels Association. RD.10/231405.1.
Stahl, W. and Stevens, R. (1992) Fuel-Alcohol Permeation Rates of Fluoroelastomers Fluoroplastics, and Other Fuel Resistant Materials. SAE Technical Paper 920163. Referred in Kassel (2006) An Environmental Perspective: EPA’s RFS Proposal.
Stephenson, R. (2004) Conductivity measurements for new engine compatment fluids. Chilworth Technology. Report R/4877/0404/WD.
Stradling et al. (2009) Volatility and vehicle driveability performance of ethanol/gasoline blends: a literature review. CONCAWE report no. 8/09.
US EPA (2011) http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/fuels/additive/e15/
US EPA (2010) E-15 Status Update July 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/fuels/additive/e15status-updated.htm).
Wallace, G., Blondy, J., Mirabella, W., Schulte-Körne, E. and Viljanen, J. Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether – A review of the technical literature. Society of Automotive Engineers. Technical paper 2009-01-1951. Refers to Tanaka et al. 2006 (SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3382) and Tanaka et al. 2007 (SAE Technical paper 2007-01-4005).
Walwijk, M., Bükmann, M., Troelsta, W. and Achten, P. (1995) Automotive Fuels Survey: Distribution and use. IEA Advanced Motor Fuels, Annex IX.
WWFC (2009) Ethanol Guidelines. Worldwide Fuel Charter Committee.
Åsman, P. (2006) Evaporative Emissions related to blending ethanol into petrol. Vägverket report. 3 April 2006.