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Task 50


Fuel and Technology Alternatives in Non-Road Engines

Purpose and Objectives

Non-road mobile machinery is used for the production of food, feed, and industrial material. The sector is responsible for between 10 and 25 % of national diesel consumption, and contributes significantly to overall emissions. However, any discussion regarding alternative fuels and GHG emissions has been focused on road vehicles, both within IEA AMF and in general. For additional background information please see the document “introduction Task 50 non-road”.

AMF has reviewed fuel effects of non-road mobile machinery for over 10 years (e.g. Task 25). Since then technology and emission performance have changed substantially. The focus of the proposed Task was on agricultural machinery (tractors) and construction equipment (road vehicle like machinery, excavators, wheel loaders etc).

The purpose and objective of this Task was to evaluate the fuel efficiency and emission performance of different engine technologies, fuel specifications and machinery applications including engine load cycles. A second objective was to develop emission factors for inventories of non-road mobile machinery in the participating countries and investigate potential spill-over from road vehicle technology. Assessment of retrofit of the legacy fleet on fuel efficiency and emissions was a third objective.


WP 1: Comparison between non-road and on-road emission legislation
  • Type approval legislation
  • Retrofit Emission Control devices
WP 2: Availability/applicability of alternative technology
  • Alternative fuels, hybridization, electrification, fuel cell technology
  • Evaluation of spill-over from on-road vehicle technology
  • Requirements on energy density, range, safety, etc
WP 3: Collection of existing data of number of machinery, working hour, engine power, etc for fuel consumption and emission inventories
  • Comparison of non-road mobile machinery fuel consumption and emissions with on-road sources
WP 4: Regional / National information on non-road mobile machinery policy options
  • Renewal of machinery
  • Repower
  • Retrofit schemes
  • Re-fuel
  • Existing and planned measures for promotion of alternative fuels and/or technologies
WP 5: Identification of machinery of interest for WP 7 based on the outcome of WP 2, WP 3, WP 4 and other national inputs
  • Investigate possible synergies between participating parties within the Task
WP 6: Development of common test procedures and protocols
  • Measurement equipment
  • Operating condition including load cycles
  • Emissions and fuel consumption (HC, CO, NOx, NO, FC, PM/PN)
WP 7: Machinery testing
  • PEMS testing of complete machinery or chassis dynamometer testing of road vehicle like machinery or engine dynamometer testing of stand-alone engines
  • Parameters to be tested
    • Emission stages
    • Drop-in fuels
    • Retrofit of exhaust gas emissions control devices
    • Engine technologies
      • Hybridization
      • Alternative fuels
    • Engine operation
      • Cycles
      • Payload
    • Ambient conditions
WP 8: Simulation of component and/or machinery in order to address fuel consumption, gas-exchange and combustion
WP 9: Reporting
  • Final report
  • 2-page summary

Participating countries could join one or more of the individual work packages. Sweden took lead of Work package 1 while Finland was responsible for WP 2. Both these WP have been conducted as a combination of cost share and task share. All participants needed to contribute to WP 3 and WP 4 with regional/national data. A broad participation of contracting parties were desirable due to the varying regional conditions such as machinery types, sizes, availability of fuel (sulphur content), operation, and emission performance.

Involvement of industry and academia.

  • In Finland, at least AGCO, Proventia Emission Control and Neste Oil were interested
  • In Sweden, at least Volvo Construction Equipment and Skanska were interested

In Germany, John Deere GmbH & Co. KG ETIC, Scientific involvement, Technical University Kaiserslautern.

Expected Results / Deliverables

The results and deliverables of this Task are a written report presenting fuel consumption and emissions data from various types of non-road mobile machinery including the effects of

  • Emissions stages
  • Technology and alternative fuels
  • Machinery operation

This Task added unbiased knowledge for non-road mobile machinery as a complement to the already complied on-road data obtained in Task 37, 43 and 49 (and other Tasks). The result from this Task could increase the awareness of non-road mobile machinery fuel consumption and emissions.


Project Duration

May 2014–June 2017


   Task Sharing

   Cost Sharing


Canada, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland


Total Budget

More than €200,000 ($312,145 US)

Task Manager

Magnus Lindgren
Swedish Transport Administration