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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Ethanol as low concentration component “E10”

In maximum, 5, 10 or 15% ethanol in gasoline can be used for conventional cars depending on the regional regulations. In Brazil, cars are slightly modified for ethanol concentrations up to some 25%. Exhaust emissions form new cars are low, and absolute differences between fuels are small in normal driving conditions. The effect of low-level ethanol on exhaust emissions is mainly seen at cold-start and heavy-driving conditions.

Ethanol properties

E10 gasoline blending

E10 emissions

References

IEA AMF work on ethanol:

  • Annex I, -1986: “Alcohols and alcohol blends as motor fuels”
  • Annex IV, -1994: “Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables”, download report
  • Annex XXXV-I, -2008 : “Ethanol as fuel for road transport”, download report
  • Annex XXXV-2, ongoing: “Particle measurements: ethanol and butanol in DISI engines"
  • Annex XXXVI, 2007–2010 “Measurement Technologies for Hydrocarbons, Ethanol, and Aldehyde Emissions from Ethanol Powered Vehicles”, download report

Other References:

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Aakko-Saksa, P., Rantanen-Kolehmainen, L., Koponen, P., Engman, A. and Kihlman, J. (2011) Biogasoline options – Possibilities for achieving high bio-share and compatibility with conventional cars. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 4:298–317 (also SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0111). Full technical report: VTT report W187.

Aakko, P., Jäntti, A., Pentikäinen, J., Honkanen, T. and Rantanen, L. (2002) An extensive analysis of the exhaust emissions from spark-ignition vehicles using fuels with biocomponents. FISITA Paper F02E027.

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Australian study (2008) Evaluating the Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol. Final report KW48/17/F3.3F. (21 vehicles using E5 and E10 splash-blended gasoline/ethanol blends. Seven cars were from 90’s, seven from around 2003 and seven from 2006 or newer.)

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CONCAWE Review, Vol. 15 no 1, Spring 2006.

Davis, G., Heil, E. and Rust, R. (2000) Ethanol vehicle cold start improvement when using a hydrogen supplemented E85 fuel. AIAA-2000-2849.

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Degaldo, R., Araujo, A. and Fernandes, V. (2007) Properties of Brazilian gasoline mixed with hydrated ethanol for flex-fuel technology. Fuel Processing Technology 88 (2007) 365-368.

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E85 Handbook (2013) Handbook of Handling, Storing, and Dispensing of E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends. US Dpeartment of Energy. DOE/GO-102013-3861.

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Environment Australia. (2002a) A Literature Review Based Assessment on the Impacts of a 20% Ethanol Gasoline Fuel Blend on the Australian Vehicle Fleet. November 2002. http://www.deh.gov.au/atmosphere/ethanol/report/chapter3.html

Environment Australia. (2002b) Setting ethanol limit in petrol.
ETP 2011 http://www.biofuelstp.eu/vehicles.html

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Graham, L., Belisle, S. and Baas, C-L. (2008) Emissions from light duty gasoline vehicles operating on low blend ethanol gasoline and E85. Atmospheric Environment 42(2008) 4498-4516. (A study on low-concentration gasoline/ethanol blends with three multi-port fuel injected (MPFI) cars of model years 1998, 2001, and 2003 and one gasoline direct injection (GDI) car from 2000. Tests were conducted at +20 and -10 °C. E10 and E20 fuels were tailored to same vapor pressure as reference gasoline. One of the fuels was splash-blended E10.)

Gregory,L. Consulting (2012) A Comphrehensive Analysis of Current Research on E15 Dispensing Component Compatibility. March 2012.

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Åsman, P. (2006) Evaporative Emissions related to blending ethanol into petrol. Vägverket report. 3 April 2006.