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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Ethanol is the dominant biocomponent in the gasoline market. Edible ethanol is produced by fermentation of sugar-containing feedstock. Production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic feedstock is under commercialization phase. Industrial ethanol can be produced from petrochemical ethylene by the acid-catalyzed hydration, but this cannot be used to meet bioenergy obligations. Ethanol is a monomolecular compound with narrow boiling point, whereas gasoline consists of hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules. Ethanol is aromatic-, olefin- and sulfur-free compound. Oxygen content of ethanol is 35%.

Ethanol properties

Options for using ethanol as motor fuel:

  • Low concentration ethanol for gasoline blending:
  • Low concentration ethanol for diesel blending:
    • Fatty Acid Ethanol Esters (FAEE) Ethanol can be converted into FAEE for low level diesel blending.
    • Ethanol as blending component in diesel fuel is not recommended.
  • High concentration ethanol for special engines:


IEA AMF work on ethanol:

  • Annex 46, 2013–2015 “Alcohol Application in CI Engines”
  • Annex 44, 2012–2014 “Research on Unregulated Pollutants Emissions of Vehicles Fuelled with Alcohol Alternative Fuels”
  • Annex 36, 2007–2010 “Measurement Technologies for Hydrocarbons, Ethanol, and Aldehyde Emissions from Ethanol Powered Vehicles”, download report
  • Annex 35-2, 2010-2014: “Particle measurements: ethanol and butanol in DISI engines", download report
  • Annex 35-1, -2008 : “Ethanol as fuel for road transport”, download report
  • Annex 26, 2002-2005: “Alcohols and Ethers as Oxygenates in Diesel Fuels”, download report
  • Annex 10, 1995-1997: “Characterisation of New Fuel Qualities”, download report
    Annex 4, -1994: “Production of alcohols and other oxygenates from fossil fuels and renewables”, download report
  • Annex 1, -1986: “Alcohols and alcohol blends as motor fuels”