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AMF - Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

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Annex 44: Research on Unregulated Pollutants Emissions of Vehicles Fuelled with Alcohol Alternative Fuels


With the gradual depletion of petroleum resources worldwide, developing alternative energy sources become a more urgent task all over the world. Alcohol fuels have the advantages of a wide range of sources. It could be manufactured from biomass raw materials, agricultural raw materials (sugar cane, cereals, rice, etc.), timber and urban waste, fossil fuels (natural gas, petrochemical and coal, etc.). Alcohol alternative fuels have been utilized within a certain range in the world. In the United States, Brazil, Sweden and other countries, the ethanol fuel made from biomass materials has been promoted. In China's Shanxi Province, Shanghai and other places, it has begun to pilot the promotion of the methanol fuel.

As the reduction of the limits of regulated pollutant emissions, unregulated pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions have become an increasing attention. With the gradual promotion of alternative fuels, studies have shown that the use alcohol fuels blended with gasoline in vehicles could reduce engine-out HC and CO emissions to some extent. The reason is that the oxygen content in the fuel can promote the complete combustion of the fuel. However, it may emit more unregulated pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones. These substances have a very strong stimulation and sensitization, as well as potential genetic toxicity and carcinogenic activity, which have a great impact on human health. It has  become an important factor restricting the further development of alcohol alternative fuels.

Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the unregulated pollutants emission of vehicles fuelled with alcohol alternative fuels, which could promote to the application of alcohol alternative fuels more normalized and quickly.


By measuring the unregulated pollutant emissions of vehicles fuelled with alcohol fuels, the main purpose of this project is to obtain the unregulated pollutant emission levels of alcohols fuelled vehicles and gradually establish the measurement methods and standards limits of unregulated pollutants emissions. Furthermore, the influences of measurement methods, automotive technology, alcohol content in the fuel, ambient temperature, test cycles and other factors on the vehicle unregulated pollutant emissions will be researched. 


  1. Literature survey, to obtain the existing measurement methods and test data of unregulated emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles;
  2. Comparative analysis of different measurement methods of unregulated pollutant emissions (such as FTIR, HPLC, GC and MS), to establish the complete measurement specifications;
  3. Effects of different vehicles (PFI vs. GDI, Naturally Aspirated vs. Turbo Charging, et al.) on unregulated  pollutant emissions;
  4. Influences of alcohol content in the fuel (methanol 15%, 30%, 85%, 100%, and ethanol 10%, 20%, 85%, 100%) on unregulated pollutants types and concentration values in vehicle exhaust emissions;
  5. Effects of the ambient temperature (25℃, 10℃, -7℃) on the concentration of unregulated pollutant emissions;
  6. Investigation on the levels of unregulated pollutant emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles in different test cycles (U.S. FTP75, Europe NEDC, Japan 10.15);
  7. Measurement on the regulated and unregulated evaporative pollutant emissions from vehicles fuelled with alcohols;
  8. Establishment the limits of main pollutants in vehicle exhaust emissions.
Project Duration July 2012 – December 2015
Task Sharing China, Canada, Finland, Sweden, Israel
Cost Sharing China, Sweden, Finland
Total Budget 80,000 € ($103,000 US)

Operating Agent

Fan Zhang
China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC)
Rm. 905, Building 7, Phase II, No. 188, Western Rd. 4th South Ring Rd, Fengtai
Beijing, 100070, China
phone: +86 22 8477 1804
email: zhangfan@catarc.ac.cn